April Recap

April was off to a good start.  I managed to check off five species early on, and had high hopes for the rest of the month.  Unfortunately I couldn’t keep up the momentum and was unable to find any of my targets in April’s second half.  I tried to locate Clasping Jewelflower (Streptanthus maculatus), Creeping Bluestar (Amsonia repens) and Texas Lady’s Tresses (Spiranthes brevilabris) at some historic sites with no luck.  I hoped to check some locations in northeast Texas for Tapertip Trillium (Trillium viridescens), Fire Pink (Silene virginica), and Downy Yellow Violet (Viola pubescens), but was unable to make it that way.  I doubt that I’ll get a chance to see these species this year…maybe next year!  The following are the species on my 2017 biodiversity list I was able to find and photograph in April:

Missouri Foxtail Cactus (Escobaria missouriensis)

Nuttall’s Death Camas (Toxicoscordion nuttallii)

Widow’s Cross (Sedum pulchellum)

Blue Lupine (Lupinus perennis)

Green Adder’s Mouth Orchid (Malaxis unifolia)

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The following are some interesting observations I made in April:

I’ll start this post like March’s recap, with a giant Saturniid moth.  For me, seeing this Promethea Moth (Callosamia promethea) was one of the most exciting of the year thus far.  The Promethea Moth is a species typical of the rich deciduous forests of the Eastern U.S. Though range maps show it entering extreme eastern Texas, I am aware of few records of its occurrence in the state. I certainly have never seen one.  Pictured is a female. Promethea Moths are sexually dimorphic, with males being much darker. I spent some time photographic her in all of her brilliance, and left her to continue pumping pheromones into the evening air, leaving chemical trails for males to seek her out and propagate future generations.

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Promethea Moth

In April I also found a few new populations of the uncommon Indian Pink (Spigelia marilandica) on the rich deciduous slopes of the Pineywoods.

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Indian Pink

While looking for the Kentucky Lady’s Slipper we came across this attractive Three-toed Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis).  Most box turtles immediately withdraw into their shells when approached.  This individual was fairly bold and allowed us to approach for some portraits.

Box Turtles have an interesting relationship with Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), a spring ephemeral of rich eastern forests.  These terrestrial turtles are the primary dispersal mechanism for Mayapple seeds.  Most parts of the plant are toxic, however the ripe fruits are edible.  While other animals will consume, process, and deposit the seeds; studies have shown that those that have passed through the digestive system of the box turtle have the highest rate of germination.  Indeed, the drooping fruits seem to rest at a perfect height for a hungry box turtle.

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Three-toed Box Turtle

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Mayapple taken in March 2014

While exploring the Big Thicket we came across the uncommon Piedmont Staggerbush (Lyonia mariana).  A member of the heath family (Ericaceae).

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Piedmont Staggerbush

Carolina spotted this White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) dutifully incubating its eggs.

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White-eyed Vireo

The Carolina Larkspur (Delphinium carolinianum) is Carolina’s favorite Texas native flower.  Every year we seek them out.  This year we found a large population in a xeric sandhill north of San Augustine.  We also observed several Prairie Milkvines (Matelea cynanchoides), another species typical of these woodlands on deep sands.

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Carolina Larkspur

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Prairie Milkvine

We also spent an afternoon in a Fleming Prairie Remnant, where I photographed the Reflexed or Topeka Coneflower (Echinacea atrorubens), and Prairie Penstemon (Penstemon cobaea), two species that are rare in the Pineywoods.

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Reflexed Coneflower

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Prairie Penstemon

I hope to focus on the unique flora and fauna of xeric sandhills and prairie remnants in future blog posts.  As the temperatures warm in May I hope that I will finally be able to check the first animal species off my list, though there are still plenty of plants to seek out, and special places to explore.

 

 

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Two For One at a Sandstone Outcrop

Target Species: Missouri Foxtail Cactus (Escobaria missouriensis) and Nuttall’s Death Camas (Toxicoscordion nuttallii)

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Missouri Foxtail Cactus

Grimes County sits in an interesting area of Texas, especially for a naturalist.  Here three ecoregions (as defined by Texas Parks and Wildlife) converge: the Pineywoods, the Post Oak Savannah, and the Blackland Prairies.  As one might expect, it is not an abrupt and sudden change from one ecoregion to the next, so what results are certain areas that display characteristics of all three areas.  It certainly makes for an interesting plant community.

In western Grimes County a series of sandstone outcrops of the Oakville formation reach the surface.  These create a stark contrast to the surrounding landscape, resulting in rocky hillsides that exhibit a unique flora.  It was on these remarkable outcrops that I pursued my quarry.

The Missouri Foxtail Cactus (Escobaria missouriensis) is a widespread cactus occurring primarily in the Great Plains and portions of the Intermountain West.  It is a cold-hardy species, reaching as far north as northern Montana and North Dakota.  In Texas it occurs primarily along the eastern edge of the Edward’s Plateau, and outcrops and barrens in the Post Oak Savannah and Blackland Prairies.  On the sandstone outcrops we found them clinging to exposed rocks, and in areas of sandstone and shallow stand over the underlying bedrock.

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Missouri Foxtail Cactus

The stems of E. missouriensis are small, inconspicuous, and difficult to see for most of the year.  They sit barely 2 inches above ground level, and in times of drought, moisture loss may pull them down to be nearly flush with the ground.  The plants remain nearly invisible for most of the year until in the late spring their brilliant blooms betray their presence.

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Missouri Foxtail Cactus

The flowers are generally pale yellow and display various tinging of pinks, greens, and tans.  The flowers tend to open in the early afternoon and close at night.  When we arrived at the first outcrop at around 1 pm, the flowers were still tightly closed, but within an hour most were wide open.  The fruits ripen overwinter, and turn bright red in the spring.  Though we did not observe it, I have read that it is common to find flowering plants with fruit still attached.  Under optimal conditions the flowers may last a few days.

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Missouri Foxtail Cactus

Escobaria missouriensis was formerly included in the genus Coryphantha.  Subtle differences in the seeds, flowers, and tubercles are used to differentiate the genera.

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Missouri Foxtail Cactus

During our visits we saw groupings of various sizes, from single stems to pairs, to clumps of ten or so.  The day provided a wealth of photographic opportunities, and I delighted in moving from cactus to cactus to capture their likeness.

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Missouri Foxtail Cactus

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Missouri Foxtail Cactus

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Missouri Foxtail Cactus

While exploring the most extensive outcrop I came across the fruits of another species on my 2017 list.  I actually saw a large population of Nuttall’s Death Camas (Toxicoscordion nuttallii) in March in the Pineywoods about 30 minutes from my house.  Unfortunately it was behind a fence in a pasture.  I tried to find and contact the landowners but had no luck, and was concerned that I might not get the chance to check this one off my list.  My heart admittedly sank a bit when all of the plants on the sandstone outcrop were in fruit, and appeared to have flowered weeks ago.  Then, in the shade of a Post Oak I found a single plant in bloom.

Nuttall’s Death Camas is primarily a plant of the south-central plains, occuring from Kansas to Arkansas to central Texas.  It is named for its poisonous bulb, which is said to be highly toxic to mammals.

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Nuttall’s Death Camas

There was also a wealth of other interesting plant species on the outcrops.  We observed Lesquerella gracilis, Calylophus berlandieri, Linum berlandieri, Chaetopappa asteroides, Marshallia caespitosa, Krameria lanceolata, Echinacea atrorubens, and more in bloom.  Unfortunately heavy winds made photographing them a real challenge.  Fortunately I was able to capture some acceptable images of White Milkwort (Polygala alba), Prairie Penstemon (Penstemon cobaea), and Reverchon’s False Pennyroyal (Hedeoma reverchonii).  The latter is restricted to central Texas and a handful of sites in Oklahoma and Arkansas.

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White Milkwort

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Prairie Penstemon

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Reverchon’s False Pennyroyal

There is something really special about exploring unique habitats like this.  Sites that were probably never common on the landscape.  I look forward to returning to this outcrop in the future to see what other treasures may bloom throughout the year.

Spring in the Hill Country

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Giant Spiderwort on a granite outcrop

Three springs ago I was lucky enough to marry the love of my life.  Before and since Carolina and I have shared many adventures in the natural world.  It seemed fitting that we spend our anniversary in these wild places we love so much, so we decided to take a trip to the Texas Hill Country.  It had been years since I spent any time exploring this treasure trove of natural wonders, and Carolina had only previously passed through.  We looked forward to a trip full of searching for rocks, gems, wildflowers, and other wild things.

The rugged Texas Hill Country is part of the Edward’s Plateau, an extensive uplift in central Texas comprised of marine deposit that are 100 million years old or more.  The region is primarily comprised of limestone, however extensive granite outcrops are present in areas.  The variety of substrates harbors an incredible array of plant and animal species, many of which are found nowhere else in the world.  Perhaps no other part of the state is as uniquely Texan as the Hill Country.  The following blog post is a long one that highlights its natural beauty.

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Spring in the Texas Hill Country

We covered a lot of ground during our trip, trying to see as much as we possibly could.  Recent rains had swollen the clear streams of the region.  While hiking we came across this tributary of the Colorado River, which I suspect is normally fairly tame.  We enjoyed a swim in the cool, clear waters below the fall.

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A Hill Country Waterfall

The wild’s of the Hill Country are full of beautiful sights, like this gnarled live oak growing from the top of a massive granite boulder.

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A gnarled live oak takes hold on a granite outcrop

The Texas Bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis) is certainly the most iconic of all Texas wildflowers.  While I can’t deny their beauty, I am usually reluctant to photograph bluebonnets, as they have been so extensively planted that it’s hard to know when one has encountered a truly wild population.  I found this large population in a clearing in an open oak/mesquite savannah far from any roads or developed areas, and am fairly certain it is a native population.

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Texas Bluebonnets

We were lucky that a number of cacti had begun to bloom during our trip.  I posted about the Claret Cup Cactus (Echinocereus coccineus) in my previous blog.  I also mentioned the Lace Cactus (Echinocereus reichenbachii).  The latter deserves mention again here, as we found many in bloom while we were driving back roads in pursuit of Topaz and Celestite.  While we did not find the precious stones, we were rewarded with the brilliant blooms of this spectacular cactus.  The largest, most impressive individuals and groups were on private land well behind fences, however we did find several beautiful individuals within camera range.

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A Lace Cactus clings to a granite outcrop

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Lace Cactus

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Lace Cactus

We also found a few Heyder’s Pincushion Cactuses (Mammillaria heyderi), which I had recently photographed in South Texas.

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Heyder’s Pincushion Cactus

Perhaps one of the most spectacular wildflower displays came from the Giant Spiderwort (Tradescantia gigantea) which seemed to thrive on granite and limestone alike.

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Giant Spiderwort

We observed a number of Penstemon species.  The most common and widespread was the Prairie Penstemon (Penstemon cobaea).  It was a treat to see such large, healthy populations of this species, as it is rare in the Pineywoods.

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Prairie Penstemon

We even found a few Prairie Penstemons with a striking lavender wash.

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Prairie Penstemon

We also found the much less common Guadalupe Penstemon, which is endemic to the Texas Hill Country.

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Guadalupe Penstemon

Penstemon guadalupensis

County level distribution for Penstemon guadalupensis from http://www.bonap.org.  Yellow counties indicate that the species is present but rare.

The most spectacular of the Penstemons, however, was the Hill Country Penstemon (Penstemon triflorus), another Edward’s Plateau endemic.

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Hill Country Penstemon

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Hill Country Penstemon

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Hill Country Penstemon

Penstemon triflorus

County-level distribution for Penstemon triflorus from http://www.bonap.org.

The Fringed Bluestar (Amsonia ciliata) was fairly difficult to spot among the grasslands and oak savannahs, despite its bright blue blooms.

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Fringed Bluestar

The Green Milkweed Vine (Matelea reticulata) is native to Texas and northeastern Mexico.  It is easy to see where it gets one of its alternate common names: The Pearl Milkweed Vine.

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Green Milkweed Vine

After spending a couple of nights camping we visited our good friends Scott Wahlberg and Ashley Tubbs in Kerrville.  Scott and I are known for our absurd conversations and hypothetical scenarios.  We are lucky that we have such tolerant women to put up with our shenanigans.  After spending the night at their place, they showed us a beautiful series of canyons that had eroded into the limestone hills.  The Endangered Golden-Cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) serenaded us as we explored its domain.

In addition to being rich in endemics, the Texas Hill Country is home to many species typical of the central or Eastern United States that are disjunct from the main portion of their range.  These species generally exist in these cool, moist canyons and are relicts of cooler, wetter times.  Scott has found Western Slimy Salamanders (Plethodon albagula) here.  Luckily I had seen them in the Hill Country before, as we were unable to find any this trip.  We did, however, see several Eastern Red Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) in bloom.

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Eastern Red Columbine

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Eastern Red Columbine

We observed several False Day Flowers (Tinantia anomala) in bloom.  These bizarre blooms reminded me of some alien creature.

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False Day Flower

We also found another uncommon endemic growing in these canyons: The Scarlet Clematis (Clematis texensis).

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Scarlet Clematis

Clematis texensis

County-level distribution for Clematis texensis.  Yellow counties indicate that the species is present but rare.

The Texas Madrone (Arbutus xalapensis) is a typical tree of the slopes grading into these canyons.  We were lucky to find a few in bloom.

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Texas Madrone

With all of the wildflowers in bloom, the pollinators were out in force as well.  Perhaps the most beautiful, and definitely the most cooperative were the many Juniper Hairstreaks (Callophrys gryneus) that we observed.

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Juniper Hairstreak

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Juniper Hairstreak

As is so often the case for me, as the trip came to an end I was hit with a feeling of sadness.  But it’s hard to be too sad when I was returning to the Pineywoods, where so many interesting species were awaiting me.